The reflective practitioner

[The reflective practitioner] allows himself to experience surprise, puzzlement, or confusion in a situation which he finds uncertain or unique. He reflects on the phenomena before him, and on the prior understandings which have been implicit in his behaviour. He carries out an experiment which serves to generate both a new understanding of the phenomena and a change in the situation. [He] is not dependant on the categories of established theory and technique… his enquiry is not limited to a deliberation about means which depends on a prior agreement about ends. He does not keep means and ends separate…he does not separate thinking from doing.

— Donald Schon